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America's Choice: Constitutional Republic or Democrat-Socialism?

"Man will ultimately be governed by God or by tyrants." (Benjamin Franklin)  


George Washington
There would be no America without the Biblical moral virtue and leadership of our Founding Father.
A challenging example to every American.

"No man has a more perfect reliance on the alwise and powerful dispensations
of the Supreme Being than I have,
nor thinks His aid more necessary." 
George Washington, May 13, 1776, in a letter to Rev. William Gordon



President George Washington wrote to Bishop John Carroll, March 15, 1790: "May the members of your society in America, animated alone by the pure spirit of Christianity, and still conducting themselves as the faithful subjects of our free government, enjoy every temporal and spiritual felicity."

"No country upon earth ever had it more in its power to attain these blessings than United America. Wondrously strange, then, and much to be regretted indeed would it be, were we to neglect the means and to depart from the road which Providence has pointed us to so plainly." --George Washington (1788)

"Victory or Death" - Philadelphia was in panic, expecting a British invasion. The Continental Congress packed up and fled. Their last instruction to General Washington was: "...until Congress shall otherwise order, General Washington shall be possessed of full power to order and direct all things." With the password for his military operation being "Victory or Death," Washington's troops crossed the ice-filled Delaware River on Christmas Day evening in a blizzard.

An Example for Every Man

"Went to church and fasted all day." - George Washington, June 1, 1774 diary entry, after hearing of a blockade at Boston Harbor

"His Example is now complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our history shall be read." --John Adams, message to the U.S. Senate on George Washington's death, December 19, 1799

"I have only been an instrument in the hands of Providence." George Washington

"It is impossible to rightly govern a nation without God and the Bible." President George Washington

The Maxims of George Washington - The example of George Washington and his precepts are a legacy, not only to America, but to all mankind. You are invited to read, in his own words, his maxims. These are adapted to the use of statesman, soldiers, citizens, heads of families, teachers of youth, and, in a word, all who should aim at what is great and good, in public and in private life. That generation after generation shall be animated by the spirit of Washington and exemplify his precepts.

"Washington was the directing spirit, without which there would have been no independence, no Union, no Constitution, and no republic. . . . We cannot yet estimate him. We can only indicate our reverence for him and thank the Divine Providence which kept him to serve and inspire his fellow man." Calvin Coolidge

"Government is not reason; it is not eloquence. It is force. And force, like fire, is a dangerous servant and a fearful master." President George Washington

"The Citizens of America, placed in the most enviable condition, as the sole Lords and Proprietors of a vast Tract of Continent, comprehending all the various soils and climates of the World, and abounding with all the necessaries and conveniencies of life, are now by the late satisfactory pacification, acknowledged to be possessed of absolute freedom and Independency; They are, from this period, to be considered as the Actors on a most conspicuous Theatre, which seems to be peculiarly designated by Providence for the display of human greatness and felicity; Here, they are not only surrounded with every thing which can contribute to the completion of private and domestic enjoyment, but Heaven has crowned all its other blessings, by giving a fairer opportunity for political happiness, than any other Nation has ever been favored with. Nothing can illustrate these observations more forcibly, than a recollection of the happy conjuncture of times and circumstances, under which our Republic assumed its rank among the Nations." - George Washington, Circular to the States, 8 June 1783

"The Hand of Providence has been so conspicuous in all this-the course of the war-that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more wicked that has not gratitude to acknowledge his obligations; but it will be time enough for me to turn Preacher when my present appointment ceases." -- George Washington August 20, 1778  (Washington, George. August 27, 1776. John Fiske, The American Revolution, 2 vols. (Boston & New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1898), Vol. I, p. 212. Marshall Foster & Mary-Elaine Swanson, The American Covenant - The Untold Story (Roseburg, OR: Foundation for Christian Self-Government, 1981; Thousand Oaks, CA: The Mayflower Institute, 1983, 1992), p. 41. George F. Scheer & Hugh F. Rankin, Rebels & Redcoats (NY: The World Publishing Co., 1957), p. 171. Peter Marshall & David Manuel, The Light & the Glory (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1977), p. 315.)

Courage and Patriotism by David Barton - On May 2, 1778, when the Continental Army was beginning to emerge from its infamous winter at Valley Forge, Commander-in-Chief George Washington commended his troops for their courage and patriotism and then reminded them that: "While we are zealously performing the duties of good citizens and soldiers, we certainly ought not to be inattentive to the higher duties of religion. To the distinguished character of Patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of Christian."
   Later that year, still in the midst of the Revolution, the help that America had already received from their "firm reliance on Divine Providence" was so obvious that George Washington told General Thomas Nelson: The hand of Providence has been so conspicuous in all this that he must be worse than an infidel that lacks faith, and more than wicked, that has not gratitude enough to acknowledge his obligations..."
   The exploits of many of these clergy-patriots are recorded in several older historical works, including The Pulpit of the American Revolution, 1860; Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution, 1861; and The Patriot Preachers of the American Revolution, 1860.

William J. Johnson, in his 1919 book, "George Washington, The Christian, documents the faith of the "Father of our Country." Like a lawyer, he catalogues testimony after testimony of Washington's unquestionable Christian character, consistent profession of faith and ardent Christian walk from his youth until his death. Johnson answers those who question accounts of Washington's faith (e.g., his prayer at Valley Forge, regularity of church attendance, observance of communion, etc.) with accounts from multiple witnesses. One unique observation in his book: The terms one uses in referring to the Deity are an indication of his religious thinking, his conception of God and his attributes...
   [In his writings, Washington refers to God as]: "Almighty, Almighty Being, Almighty Father, Almighty God, Almighty Ruler of the Universe, All-Kind Providence, All-Powerful Guide, All-Powerful Providence, All-Wise Dispenser of Events, All-Wise Disposer of Events, All-Wise and Powerful Being, Author of All Good, Author of Blessings, Beloved Son, Beneficent Author of All Good, Beneficent Being, Benign Parent of the Human Race, Bountiful Providence, Creator, Deity, Dispenser of Human Events, Divine Author of Life and Felicity, Divine Author of Our Blessed Religion, Divine Author of the Universe, Divine Beneficence, Divine Blessing, Divine Goodness, Divine Government, Divine Providence, Giver of Life, Giver of Victory, God, God of Armies, Good Providence, Gracious and Beneficent Being, Gracious God, Gracious Providence, Grand Architect of the Universe, Great Arbiter of the Universe, Great Author of All the Care and Good, Great Director of Events, Great Disposer of Events, Great Father of the Universe, Great and Glorious Being, Great and Good Being, Great Governor of the Universe, Great Power, Great Ruler of Events, Great Ruler of Nations, Great Searcher of Human Hearts, Heavenly Preserver, Jehovah, Lord, Lord and Giver of All Victory, Lord of Hosts, Lord and Rider of Nations, Maker, Most Gracious Being, Omnipotent Being, Overruling Providence, Parent of the Universe, Power, Providence, Revelation, Pure and Benign Light of Ruler of the Universe, Source of Blessings, Sovereign Arbiter of the United States, Superintending Providence, Supreme Architect, Supreme Author of All Good, Supreme Being, Supreme Dispenser of Every Good, Supreme Ruler of Nations, Supreme Ruler of the Universe, Wise Disposer of Events, Wonder-Working Deity."

George Washington: "I can only say that there is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of it."  --Letter from George Washington to Robert Morris (April 12, 1786)

George Washington's evolving views on the difficult subject of slavery - by Tara Ross - Washington himself wrestled with the subject for years, although he never took a public stance against slavery. Should he have done so? Some scholars speculate that he never did take a public position because he was worried about breaking up the Union before it ever got off the ground. Either way, Washington's views were changing, and his actions reflected this evolving perspective. He quit selling slaves without their permission. He would not break up families, even when he had too many slaves and ran into cost inefficiencies at Mount Vernon.

   He softened his position on allowing black men to serve in the Continental Army during the Revolution. He met with the first black American poet, even giving her the respectful title, "Miss Phillis." (See September 1 history post.)

   Towards the end of his life, he would speak of slavery as the "only unavoidable subject of regret" in his life. Maybe it is unsurprising that he freed his slaves in his will? None of us are perfect, and I suspect future generations will find plenty wrong with the things that we have done. But I hope they will also find things that we did right.

   One thing that the Founders did right: Fifty-five of them met in a room in Philadelphia. They were learned men, students of history. They had studied various political systems. They were free from partisan interests. (Their biggest bias was in favor of their own states.) They lived at a unique point in history, and they came together with the goal of creating a uniquely successful government. And they did just that. In this author's opinion, we do our country a disservice when we ignore the good things that these men did because we wish that they had overcome one (really) big flaw more quickly.

See also: George Washington quotes  (Jax Hunter)


Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior by George Washington - Deep in an inner labyrinth of the Library of Congress, on an ordinary-looking metal shelf, sits a slim, tattered paper notebook. It is stained and spotted with age, and its outermost pages appear to have been partly chewed away by rodents, or perhaps wadded up into spitballs by the teenage schoolboy who kept it, long ago. But this unprepossessing volume is one of the national library's greatest treasures, for that schoolboy was, of course, none other than George Washington, aged about fifteen. Along with two similar notebooks of geometry lessons, it is one of the very few documents to survive from his childhood and adolescence. Its last ten pages are filled with the Rules of Civility & Decent Behavior in Company & Conversation reprinted here, which have fascinated our first president's biographers for nearly two centuries.


George Washington Gives Model of Presidential Leadership By Rich Tucker - ...George Washington himself remains a timeless hero who still deserves the full devotion of the American people. First in war? "Through force of character and brilliant political leadership," writes Heritage's Matthew Spalding, "Washington transformed an underfunded militia into a capable force that, although never able to take the British army head-on, outwitted and defeated the mightiest military power in the world." Spalding's essay about Washington has just been reissued as part of The Heritage Foundation's series on people who've shaped American political thought. First in peace? "As our first President, Washington set the precedents that define what it means to be a constitutional executive. He was a strong, energetic President but always aware of the limits on his office; he deferred to authority when appropriate but aggressively defended his prerogatives when necessary." First in the hearts of his countrymen? True then: "The vast powers of the presidency, as one delegate to the Constitutional Convention wrote, would not have been made as great "had not many of the members cast their eyes towards General Washington as president; and shaped their ideas of the powers to be given to a president, by their opinions of his virtue." True now, as another presidential election approaches: "We take for granted the peaceful transferal of power from one President to another, but it was Washington's relinquishing of power in favor of the rule of law, a first in the annals of modern history, that made those transitions possible."


American Statesman: The Enduring Relevance of George Washington By Matthew Spalding, Ph.D. - George Washington was by all accounts "the indispensable man" of the American Founding. He was the military commander who led a ragtag Continental army to victory against the strongest and best trained military force in the world. Crucial to the success of the Constitutional Convention, his personal support of the new Constitution, more than anything else, assured its final approval. His election to the presidency, the office having been designed with him in mind, was essential to the establishment of the new nation. "Be assured," James Monroe reminded Thomas Jefferson, "his influence carried this government."[1] A soldier by profession and a surveyor by trade, Washington was first and foremost a man of action. He never learned a foreign language or traveled abroad, and he never wrote a political tract or a philosophical treatise on politics. Like Abraham Lincoln, Washington had received little formal education. And yet his words, thoughts, and deeds as a military commander, a President, and a patriotic leader make him one of the greatest statesmen, perhaps the greatest statesman, in our history.  

Did George Washington Predict America's Fall? - Matt Barber identifies Barack Obama in 1st president's Farewell Address - Imagine if anti-Christian outfits like the ACLU or the so-called "Freedom From Religion Foundation" (FFRF) had been around back then.  ..."Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity," declared Washington, "Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and Citizens. [R]eason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle." Regrettably, Washington's parting words exemplify, to a great extent, the current state of affairs in the very government he helped to bring about.
   ...In 1788, eight years prior to his Farewell Address, Washington wrote: "[T]he [federal] government, can never be in danger of degenerating into a monarchy, an oligarchy, an aristocracy, or any other despotic or oppressive form so long as there shall remain any virtue in the body of the people." We are in danger. As our national virtue melts away, it strains credulity to deny that we are entering, as Washington warned, a dark era of American despotism. Like water to the gulch, such despotism pervades in the absence of religion and morality. And as history has shown, the despotic nation is not long for the world.

George Washington, letter to James Madison, 1785 - "We are either a United people, or we are not. If the former, let us, in all matters of general concern act as a nation, which have national objects to promote, and a national character to support. If we are not, let us no longer act a farce by pretending to it."
In GOD We Trust: George Washington and the Spiritual Destiny of the United States of America - To learn how deeply George Washington (who was given the very deserving name, The Father of Our Country")  relied upon the "religion of Jesus Christ" EarsToHear.net highly recommends the book In GOD We Trust: George Washington and the Spiritual Destiny of the United States of America By Michael A. Shea. Explores God's hand in the many miracles and coincidences in George Washington's life and country's founding. The book also explores the country's spiritual journey and destiny connected to Jesus, God's purpose in the founding of the United States, and what it portends for our future survival as a nation.

The original, right-wing extremist By David Huntwork - One can reasonably presume how today's Left would characterize and attack the person I am about to describe to you. Without a doubt, he would be characterized as some sort of dangerous, right-wing, tea-bagging, homophobic, Christian Neanderthal who should be maligned, attacked, marginalized, silenced, and driven from power. Character assassination has become the weapon of choice for those who so forcefully peddle the liberal/progressive ideology. It is relentlessly used to silence all those who stand in opposition to the myriad of 'isms' they champion as they seek to "fundamentally transform" the country and society. I sincerely doubt they would spare him.
   He was the commanding General of the Army and later a two-term president. Unwavering and dedicated, he had a deep-set of personal beliefs and never faltered from his chosen path. He called morality "a necessary spring of popular government" and while in command of the army he ordered "vice and immorality of every kind discouraged." Accustomed to undertaking daily devotions, he ordered worship for the army every Sunday and had twenty thousand Bibles imported for the troops. He even had the audacity to state "to the distinguished character of Patriot, it should be our highest glory to add the more distinguished character of Christian." Can you imagine how those who worship at the altar of the 'separation of church and state' would react to such actions and utterances?
   He was devoted and married to the same woman his entire life and appears to have never fallen for the temptation of affairs or mistresses during his marriage. His army was probably the first in history to not have a large corp of camp followers filled with harlots and trollops following in its wake. He firmly forbade looting of any kind and quickly drummed out of the army those caught engaging in sodomy.
   He was a staunch defender of the right individual to keep and bear arms. He declared that "a free people ought to be armed" and never challenged or questioned the right of individuals to privately own the most advanced firearms of the day. So who was this man who championed such principles that stand in such stark contrast to modern-day liberals and Progressives? His name was George Washington. Discipline, honor, principle, self-reliance, and personal responsibility were all epitomized by George Washington and are deeply valued by the conservative movement. Sobriety and modesty, as well as interest in character and morals were championed by him in both public and private. Such values are timeless and are just as important today as they were then. 


General Washington's General Orders

George Washington, General Orders, (May 2nd, 1778) - "The Commander in Chief directs that divine Service be performed every Sunday at 11 oClock in those Brigades to which there are Chaplains; those which have none to attend the places of worship nearest to them. It is expected that Officers of all Ranks will by their attendence set an Example to their men. While we are zealously performing the duties of good Citizens and soldiers we certainly ought not to be inattentive to the higher duties of Religion. To the distinguished Character of Patriot, it should be our highest Glory to add the more distinguished Character of Christian. The signal Instances of providential Goodness which we have experienced and which have now almost crowned our labours with complete Success, demand from us in a peculiar manner the warmest returns of Gratitude and Piety to the Supreme Author of all Good."

June 15, 1775 -- Congress unanimously selects George Washington to lead the Continental Army.  He told Congress that he did not feel himself "equal to the command" and confided in his wife Martha that he didn't feel worthy of this position: "I hope my undertaking this service is designed to answer some good purpose.  I rely confidently on that Providence which has heretofore preserved and been bountiful to me."  Historian George Bancroft wrote that "His acceptance changed the state of affairs."  Bancroft observed that "All hearts turned with affection toward Washington.  This is he who was raised up to be, not the head of a party, but the father of his country." 

On June 17th 1775, the Continental Congress drafted George Washington's commission as commander-in-chief, for which he refused a salary. Washington wrote to his wife, Martha: "Dearest...It has been determined in Congress, that the whole army raised for the defense of the American Cause shall be put under my care, and that it is necessary for me to proceed immediately to Boston to take...command... I shall rely therefore, confidently, on that Providence which has heretofore preserved, and been bountiful to me." Washington ended: "I...got Colonel Pendleton to Draft a Will...the Provision made for you, in case of my death, will, I hope, be agreeable."  

"For if Men are to be precluded from offering their Sentiments on a matter, which may involve the most serious and alarming consequences, that can invite the consideration of Mankind, reason is of no use to us; the freedom of Speech may be taken away, and dumb and silent we may be led, like sheep, to the Slaughter." - George Washington, in an address to the officers of the army, March 15, 1783

General Washington's Sodomy Court Martial of Lieutt. Enslin of Colo. Malcom's Regiment

The Founders on Homosexuality by Dave Miller, Ph.D. - Of those living today in America who were alive 50 years ago, few could have imagined, let alone predicted, that homosexuality would encroach on our culture as it has. In fact, it would have been unthinkable. The rapidity with which homosexual activists continue successfully to bully the nation to normalize what once was universally considered abnormal is astonishing. And toleration has not satisfied them. Allowing their views to be taught in public schools has not appeased them. No, they insist that societal endorsement extend to redefining marriage to include same-sex couples.

...The Founding Fathers of these United States would be incredulous, incensed, and outraged. They understood that acceptance of homosexuality would undermine and erode the moral foundations of civilization. Sodomy, the longtime historical term for same-sex relations, was a capital crime under British common law. Sir William Blackstone, British attorney, jurist, law professor, and political philosopher, authored his monumental Commentaries on the Laws of England from 1765-1769. These commentaries became the premiere legal source admired and used by America's Founding Fathers.

...How many Americans realize that while serving as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, the Father of our country was apprised of a homosexual in the army. The response of General Washington was immediate and decisive. He issued General Orders, from Army Headquarters at Valley Forge on Saturday, March 14, 1778  (The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript ..., Volume 11, page 83)

At a General Court Martial whereof Colo. Tupper was President (10th March 1778) Lieutt. Enslin of Colo. Malcom's Regiment tried for attempting to commit sodomy, with John Monhort a soldier; Secondly, For Perjury in swearing to false Accounts, found guilty of the charges exhibited against him, being breaches of 5th Article 18th Section of the Articles of War and do sentence him to be dismiss'd the service with Infamy. His Excellency the Commander in Chief approves the sentence and with Abhorrence and Detestation of such Infamous Crimes orders Lieutt. Enslin to be drummed out of Camp tomorrow morning by all the Drummers and Fifers in the Army never to return; The Drummers and Fifers to attend on the Grand Parade at Guard mounting for that Purpose.

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg was one of the founders of the Lutheran Church in America. His son John Peter, was a pastor, promoted to Major-General in the Continental Army and then elected to Congress. Another son, Frederick, was a pastor who became the first Speaker of the House. Both sons served in the first U.S. Congress and helped pass the First Amendment. Henry Muhlenberg pastored the German congregations near Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War. In The Notebook of a Colonial Clergyman, Henry Muhlenberg wrote: "I heard a fine example today, namely that His Excellency General Washington rode around among his army yesterday and admonished each and every one to fear God, to put away wickedness that has set in and become so general, and to practice Christian virtues. From all appearances General Washington does not belong to the so-called world of society, for he respects God's Word, believes in the atonement through Christ, and bears himself in humility and gentleness. Therefore, the Lord God has also singularly, yea, marvelously preserved him from harm in the midst of countless perils, ambuscades, fatigues, etc., and has hitherto graciously held him in his hand as a chosen vessel."

"I am greatly in need of exercise." --General Washington to Primus Hall

Adopted from:  | Posted Feb 17, 2021 | , 

Washington the Practical Christian: Taken from William Nell's Services of Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812, the anecdote recounted below is descriptive of George Washington's attitude toward African-Americans.

Throughout the Revolutionary war Primus Hall was the steward of Col. Timothy Pickering of Massachusetts. He was free and communicative, and delighted to sit down with an interested listener and pour out those stores of absorbing and exciting anecdotes with which his memory was stored.

It is well known that there was no officer in the whole American army whose friendship was dearer to Washington, and whose counsel was more esteemed by him, than that of the honest and patriotic Col. Pickering. He was on intimate terms with him, and unbosomed himself to him with as little reserve as, perhaps, to any confident in the army. Whenever he was stationed within such a distance as to admit of it, he passed many hours with the Colonel, consulting him upon anticipated measures, and delighting in his reciprocated friendship.

Washington was, therefore, often brought into contact with the steward of Col. Pickering, the departed Primus. An opportunity was afforded to the negro to note him, under circumstances very different from those in which he is usually brought before the public, and which possess, therefore, a striking charm. I remember two of these anecdotes from the mouth of Primus. One of them is very slight, indeed, yet so peculiar as to be replete with interest. The authenticity of both may be fully relied upon.

Washington once came to Col. Pickering's quarters, and found him absent.

"It is no matter," said he to Primus. "I am greatly in need of exercise. You must help me to get some before your master returns."

Under Washington's directions the negro busied himself in some simple preparations. A stake was driven into the ground about breast high, a rope tied to it, and then Primus was desired to stand at some distance and hold it horizontally extended. The boys, the country over, are familiar with this plan of getting sport. With true boyish zest, Washington ran forwards and backwards for some time, jumping over the rope as he came and went, until he expressed himself satisfied with the "exercise."

Repeatedly afterwards, when a favorable opportunity offered, he would say, "Come, Primus, I am in need of exercise;" whereat the negro would drive down the stake, and Washington would jump over the rope until he had exerted himself to his content.

On the second occasion, the great General was engaged in earnest consultation with Col. Pickering in his tent until after the night had fairly set in. Headquarters were at a considerable distance, and Washington signified his preference to staying with the Colonel overnight, provided he had a spare blanket and straw.

"Oh, yes," said Primus, who was appealed to; "plenty of straw and blankets, plenty."

Upon this assurance, Washington continued his conference with the Colonel until it was time to retire to rest. Two humble beds were spread, side by side, in the tent, and the officers laid themselves down, while Primus seemed to be busy with duties that required his attention before he himself could sleep. He worked, or appeared to work, until the breathing of the prostrate gentlemen satisfied him that they were sleeping; and then, seating himself on a box or stool, he leaned his head on his hands to obtain such repose as so inconvenient a position would allow. In the middle of the night Washington awoke. He looked about, and descried the negro as he sat. He gazed at him awhile, and then spoke.
"Primus!" said he, calling, "Primus!" Primus started up and rubbed his eyes. "What, General?" said he.

Washington rose up in his bed. "Primus," said he, "what did you mean by saying that you had blankets and straw enough? Here you have given up your blanket and straw to me, that I may sleep comfortably, while you are obliged to sit through the night."

"It's nothing, General," said Primus. "It's nothing. I'm well enough. Don't trouble yourself about me, General, but go to sleep again. No matter about me. I sleep very good."

"But it is matter, it is matter," said Washington, earnestly.

"I cannot do it, Primus. If either is to sit up, I will. But I think there is no need of either sitting up. The blanket is wide enough for two. Come and lie down here with me."

"Oh, no, General!" said Primus, starting, and protesting against the proposition. "No; let me sit here. I'll do very well on the stool."

"I say, come and lie down here!" said Washington, authoritatively. "There is room for both, and I insist upon it!"

He threw open the blanket as he spoke, and moved to one side of the straw. Primus professes to have been exceedingly shocked at the idea, of lying under the same covering with the commander-in-chief, but his tone was so resolute and determined that he could not hesitate. He prepared himself, therefore, and laid himself down by Washington; and on the same straw, and under the same blanket, the General and the negro steward slept until morning.  [1]

The Man Who Would Not Be King

On 30 April 1789, America's first commander in chief, George Washington, took this presidential oath of office with his hand on a Bible opened to Deuteronomy 28. He ended his oath with "So help me God," which was added to military oaths for officers by Act of Congress 29 September 1789.  

The Man Who Would Not Be King by Matthew Spalding, Ph.D. George Washington is one of the most recognized figures in U.S. history. But familiarity breeds contempt. More often than not, Washington is an old painting on the wall, solemn, impersonal and distant, or the subject of childhood stories and nursery rhymes. We all know that he chopped down a cherry tree and had wooden teeth. The actual Washington is much more compelling. We can all see the brilliant flourishes of Jefferson's pen, Madison's constitutional handiwork or the success of Hamilton's economic policies, and that can cause us to overlook or underestimate the magnitude of Washington's achievement. Yet he really was, as Washington's greatest biographer, James Flexner, put it, the "indispensable man" of the American founding. ...And the key ingredient in all of these things was moral character, something that Washington took very seriously and which gave to his decision-making a deeply prudential quality and to his authority an unmatched magnanimity. "His integrity was pure, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motives of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision," Jefferson later observed. "He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man."

February 4, 1789, George Washington was elected as the first President of the United States. Washington was the commander of the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War and following the war he served as President of the Constitutional Convention. He was a well-known and all-around well-liked leader, who was respected by all sides of the political spectrum at that time.

   When it came time to choose the United States, first President, it was not surprising that he was the top choice. However, it seemed apparent that Washington did not want much to do with this high position of leadership. He tried everything he could to sidestep the role, as Washington was very ready to retire to his beloved Mount Vernon and live in peace.

   In addition to many other claims of inadequacy, Washington chiefly pointed out that his old age would hamper him, and that a young man would be better equipped to perform the job well. Washington ceaselessly stated that someone else should be chosen for the Presidency. In the end, all of Washington's self-deprecation made people respect him even more, as he came across as both extremely modest and honorable. At this point, Congress wanted Washington for President and they would not take no for an answer.

   On February 4, George Washington was unanimously elected. Now the issue arose of how to address the new President. The Senate proposed first that his official title be His Highness the President of the United States of America and the Protector of Their Liberties. Washington was not in favor of this extravagant title and opted for the more modest, Mr. President.

"For myself the delay [in assuming the office of the President] may be compared with a reprieve; for in confidence I assure you, with the world it would obtain little credit that my movements to the chair of Government will be accompanied by feelings not unlike those of a culprit who is going to the place of his execution: so unwilling am I, in the evening of a life nearly consumed in public cares, to quit a peaceful abode for an Ocean of difficulties, without that competency of political skill, abilities and inclination which is necessary to manage the helm." --George Washington, comment to General Henry Knox, March 1789

George Washington, Draft First Inaugural Address, April 1789: "The blessed Religion revealed in the word of God will remain an eternal and awful monument to prove that the best Institution may be abused by human depravity; and that they may even, in some instances be made subservient to the vilest purposes. Should, hereafter, those incited by the lust of power and prompted by the Supineness or venality of their Constituents, overleap the known barriers of this Constitution and violate the unalienable rights of humanity: it will only serve to shew, that no compact among men (however provident in its construction and sacred in its ratification) can be pronounced everlasting and inviolable, and if I may so express myself, that no Wall of words, that no mound of parchm[en]t can be so formed as to stand against the sweeping torrent of boundless ambition on the side, aided by the sapping current of corrupted morals on the other."

What were the most important actions of the Washington presidency? ...CREATION OF A CABINET OF ADVISORS: When Washington convened his first cabinet meeting on November 26, 1791, he demonstrated his understanding that the pressing issues facing the new nation national and international required a rapid response. ...FORMATION OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES: The United States Constitution provided for the establishment of a Supreme Court but, when Washington raised his hand and took the oath of office, there was no court. Imagine a single president having the responsibility to select the entire court! During his two terms, Washington appointed eleven justices and was thoughtful in his nominations. (More at link.)

"His example is now complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our history shall be read." John Adams, concerning Washington in a message to the U.S. Senate, 19 December 1799

Declarations of George Washington

"The establishment of Civil and Religious Liberty was the Motive which induced me to the Field -- the object is  attained -- and it now remains to be my earnest wish & prayer, that the Citizens of the United States could make a wise and virtuous use of the blessings placed before them."

"[T]he foundation of a great Empire is laid, and I please myself with a persuasion, that Providence will not leave its work imperfect."

"The foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens, and command the respect of the world."

"I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have you, and the State over which you preside, in his holy protection, that he would incline the hearts of the Citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to Government, to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow Citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for their brethren who have served in the Field, and finally, that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all, to do Justice, to love mercy, and to demean ourselves with that Charity, humility and pacific temper of mind, which were the Characteristicks of the Divine Author of our blessed Religion, and without an humble imitation of whose example in these things, we can never hope to be a happy Nation." --George Washington, circular letter of farewell to the Army, 1783

"The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally, staked on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American People." First Inaugural Address, 30 April 1789

"[A] good moral character is the first essential in a man, and that the habits contracted at your age are generally indelible, and your conduct here may stamp your character through life. It is therefore highly important that you should endeavor not only to be learned but virtuous." --George Washington, letter to Steptoe Washington, 1790

From George Washington's private prayer journal. "O most glorious God ... Direct my thoughts, words and work, wash away my sins in the immaculate blood of the Lamb, and purge my heart by thy Holy Spirit.... Daily frame me more and more into the likeness of thy Son Jesus Christ.... Thou gavest thy Son to die for me, and hast given me assurance of salvation...."

"Cleanse my soul O Lord, I beseech thee, from whatever is offensive to thee, and hurtful to me, and give me what is convenient for me. Watch over me this night, and give me comfortable and sweet sleep to fit me for the service of the day following. Let my soul watch for the coming of the Lord Jesus; let my bed put me in mind of my grave, and my rising from there of my last resurrection; O heavenly Father, so frame this heart of mine, that I may ever delight to live according to thy will and command, in holiness and righteousness before thee all the days of my life."

"Almighty God I yield Thee humble and hearty thanks that thou has preserved me from the danger of the night past, and brought me to the light of the day, and the comforts thereof, a day which is consecrated to Thine own service and for Thine own honor. Let my heart, therefore, Gracious God, be so affected with the glory and majesty of it, that I may not do mine own works, but wait on thee, and discharge those weighty duties thou requirest of me."

"No country upon earth ever had it more in its power to attain these blessings than United America. Wondrously strange, then, and much to be regretted indeed would it be, were we to neglect the means and to depart from the road which Providence has pointed us to so plainly; I cannot believe it will ever come to pass."  June 29, 1788

"Your love of liberty -- your respect for the laws -- your habits of industry -- and your practice of the moral and religious obligations, are the strongest claims to national and individual happiness."

"The foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens, and command the respect of the world."

"We should never despair, our Situation before has been unpromising and has changed for the better, so I trust, it will again. If new difficulties arise, we must only put forth new Exertions and proportion our Efforts to the exigency of the times."

Further Resources

  • Was George Washington a Deist? See this short video by David Barton.

  • Why George Washington Was Not a Deist, but a Practicing Christian - By Mark Martin - On the eve of George Washington's birthday, historian and theologian Dr. Peter Lillback spoke with CBN News (video at link) about the faith of America's first president, saying Washington was a devoted, practicing Christian and not a deist as some have claimed. CBN News spoke with historian and theologian Dr. Peter Lillback about the faith of Founding Father George Washington. Watch the interview above. Lillback has written a book entitled, George Washington's Sacred Fire, and he believes the work proves decisively that Washington was a devout Christian, the evidence being the Founding Father's own thoughts, words and actions.

       ..."If you go through his 30-plus volumes of writings, which I have done, both painstakingly by computer and by reading, I've discovered that he claims to be a Christian on many occasions," Lillback told CBN News. "Further, we find that he even criticizes those that did not believe in God's existence or that God had anything to do with the birth of America." ..."He speaks of Jesus as 'the Divine Author of our blessed Religion,'" Lillback continued. "He gives the phrase divinity to Him, and then finally, he calls the Bible, the 'word of God.'"
        ..."Jonathan Edwards, the great father of the first Great Awakening, in his writing says no deist will ever call the Bible the word of God because they believe that God doesn't have a written word," Lillback said. "But Washington will call it 'holy writ;' he will call it the 'word of God,'" he continued.

  • The Model for Presidential Character -- George Washington - By Mark Alexander - Abigail Adams wrote, "He is polite with dignity, affable without formality, distant without haughtiness, grave without austerity; modest, wise and good." ...Thomas Jefferson noted of Washington, "He was incapable of fear, meeting personal dangers with the calmest unconcern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his character was prudence, never acting until every circumstance, every consideration, was maturely weighed; refraining if he saw a doubt, but, when once decided, going through with his purpose, whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was most pure, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motives of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision. He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man."

  • In GOD We Trust: George Washington and the Spiritual Destiny of the United States of America By Michael Shea - explores God's hand in the many miracles and coincidences in George Washington's life and country's founding. The book also explores the country's spiritual journey and destiny connected to Jesus, God's purpose in the founding of the United States, and what it portends for our future survival as a nation.

  • The equestrian statue at Washington Circle in Washington, D.C., depicts General Washington at the Battle of Princeton. At the statue's dedication in 1860, sculptor Clark Mills stated: "... at the Battle of Princeton where Washington, after several ineffectual attempts to rally his troops, advanced so near the enemy's lines that his horse refused to go further, but stood and trembled while the brave rider sat undaunted with reins in hand. ...At the Battle of Princeton, the surprised British immediately fought back, sending forth a bayonet charge which killed dozens of American soldiers. One of those killed was General Hugh Mercer, who had fought with Washington in the French and Indian War, and in the Battle of Trenton. Hugh Mercer's descendants included WWII General George S. Patton. After Mercer was killed, the British pressed their counter-attack. The American militia under General John Cadwalader began to panic and flee. To stop the retreat, General George Washington immediately rode to the front of the line and ordered the soldiers to stop running away. He commanded them to turn around and follow him back to the front lines. Washington rode extremely close to the British, within just 30 yards. Turning and facing his men, Washington yelled: "Halt!" "Aim," "Fire!" The British immediately fired a volley in return. The field of battle was filled with a cloud of smoke. Many thought Washington was surely shot, as he was exposed to fire from both sides. Irishman John Fitzgerald, who was an American aide-de-camp, pulled down his hat down to cover his eyes so as to not see Washington killed. But when the smoke cleared, to their dismay, Washington was seen on his horse, waving to his men to charge ahead. The Americans charged and won a great victory at the Battle of Princeton. An estimated 100 British were killed or wounded, and over 300 captured, as compared to only 23 Americans killed and 20 wounded. Enthusiasm swept America. Though it took nearly seven more years of fighting till the Revolutionary War ended, this battle was a major turning point. British historian Sir George Otto Trevelyan wrote of the American victories at Trenton and Princeton: "It may be doubted whether so small a number of men ever employed so short a space of time with greater and more lasting effects upon the history of the world."

  • George Washington: "An Instrument in the Hands of Providence" By Stephen McDowell - George Washington is one of the most significant men in all of history. Regarding the direct advancement of civil and political liberty in the earth, he may well be the most significant champion in all history. Certainly he was the central figure of bringing a new era of liberty to the world in modern times. Abraham Lincoln observed: Washington is the mightiest name of earth, long since mightiest in the cause of civil liberty, still mightiest in moral reformation. On that name no eulogy is expected. It cannot be. To add brightness to the sun or glory to the name of Washington is alike impossible. Let none attempt it.1 Founding Father Fisher Ames said that Washington changed the standard of human greatness.2 One biographer wrote, "Washington was without an equal, was unquestionably the greatest man that the world has produced in the last one thousand years.3 Thomas Paine observed: "By common consent, Washington is regarded as not merely the Hero of the American Revolution, but the World's Apostle of Liberty.4 A figure in history like Washington did not just arise by happenstance. It was the near unanimous consent of early Americans that Washington, like Esther of old, had "come to the Kingdom for such a time as this."

  • George Washington Papers - Library of Congress

  • George Washington Writings - John C. Fitzpatrick

  • On this day August 25, in 1789, George Washington's mother passes away from breast cancer. (Tara Ross) Did you ever wonder about his mother? Did the two get along? What was their relationship like? Relations between George and his mother seem to have become difficult at some point, although George largely kept his feelings about his mother private. Early on, she wouldn't let him join the Royal Navy. Later, as George served in the French and Indian War, Mary wrote to complain that she was having trouble getting butter. (Never mind the life-and-death situation you are dealing with, son. If you really want to do something useful, get me some butter!)

  • George Washington and a Certain Lady by Susan Dale - George Washington truly loved his Martha. He died at the age of 67 on December 14, 1799, and had he lived just a bit longer, he and Martha would have celebrated their 41st wedding anniversary the following January 6. They were, all their almost 41 years together, quite devoted to each other. That notwithstanding, there were several other women who played significant roles in George Washington's life. ...He also loved to dance and was an excellent dancer. As such, George Washington would do so with as many attractive women as often as he could; one evening he was observed dancing for four hours straight with several partners. Clearly, George Washington was a great appreciator of women. ...George Washington's favorite sport was fox hunting, and he was superb at it. He was also an avid hunter, and would be highly appreciative of Governor Palin's moose field-dressing skills. ...He detested the idea of political parties; he felt that if they became entrenched entities that it would be ruinous, yet another demonstration of what a remarkable visionary Washington was.

  • George Washington married Martha Dandridge Custis in 1759, but they had no children together. However, he and Martha raised both of her children from a previous marriage (she was a widow), as well as two of her grandchildren and several children of relatives.

  • Martha Washington: Famous, but "completely unknown" Posted on June 2, 2018 by Tara Ross - (Excerpt) Patsy and George lived a long life together, as everyone knows, but did you know that Patsy followed George to all of his winter encampments during the American Revolution? She made friends with the other officers, wives. She spent hours knitting dry woolen socks for infantry. She had fun with George, singing with friends, or enjoying a nice dinner. When she couldn't be with George, the two wrote to each other. Patsy was George's emotional rock, a shelter in the storm. He undoubtedly needed it: He was the head of a ragtag Continental Army that had dared to wage a Revolution against the most powerful Army and Navy in the world. "George Washington was the indispensable man to the success of the American Revolution," Brady concludes, "and Martha Washington was the indispensable woman to him."

  • George Washington: President & Beer Lover (Excerpted from Brewed In America by Stanley Baron, 1962.) ...(Read George Washington's Personal Beer Recipe.)

  • George Washington's Mount Vernon: How the Founding Father's Home Reflects His Character BY RACHAEL DYMSKI In his lifetime, George Washington took on many titles and roles. He served as a major and ambassador in the French and Indian War. He was the commanding general of the Continental Army, and served as the unanimously elected first president of the newly formed United States. But perhaps the title most dear to his heart was that of entrepreneur and farmer.
           Enraged by the tobacco consignment system, he switched from growing tobacco to grains, wheat and barley being the most prominent crops. He purchased a gristmill so that he could process his own wheat, eliminating the need to send it away or rely on anyone else to get the job done. In doing so, he made Mount Vernon one of the first vertically integrated enterprises in the United States.  Eventually, Washington would have a hand in every step of the manufacturing process. He grew the grain, ran it through his innovative and highly efficient 16-sided chafing barn, processed the grain at his own gristmill, and sold flour, bread, biscuits, and whiskey under the brand name G. Washington. In the 1790s, he retooled his gristmill with a new design, where each step of his process was hydro-powered. In his ability to innovate at every step of the process, Washington was the quintessential American.
         Visitors to Mount Vernon's website can take a virtual tour of the mansion, read about Washington's many exploits and endeavors, and learn the ins and outs of running a large farm. The website makes for a wonderful homeschool or additional learning resource.

  • George Washington's inaugural ball - By Tara Ross - ...Washington loved to dance. Moreover, he was far from emotionless. To the contrary, Washington was a man of deep passions. Did you know that he had a terrible temper? When he was young, his strong emotions nearly got the better of him a few times. Thus, he learned early in life that his passions must be controlled. Otherwise, they would control him. What you (or your history book) think of as a stoic, emotionless front was actually a deliberately controlled and disciplined exterior. Washington was known for his grace and energy as a dancer. As early as 1779, the Pennsylvania Packet reprinted a letter "from a foreigner to a gentleman in this city." The letter described a celebration of the first anniversary of the alliance between France and America. This foreign observer waxed eloquent about Washington's dancing abilities: "The ball was opened by his Excellency the General. When this man unbends from his station, and its weighty functions, he is even then like a philosopher who mixes with the amusements of the world, that he may teach it what is right, or turn its trifles into instruction." Washington often took advantage of opportunities to dance, even during the Revolution. In 1779, General Nathanael Greene wrote that his wife danced with Washington "upwards of three hours without once sitting down." A year later, Greene noted a ball at which Washington "with dignified and graceful air, having Mrs. Knox for his partner, carried down a dance of twenty couples in the arbor on the green grass."


"[In] nine days that saved the revolution... George Washington hit upon an audacious plan to turn the tide of war. On Christmas night, 1776, he led a force of 2,400 men across the ice-choked Delaware River, into the teeth of a vicious blizzard... After marching all night through the storm, they attacked and defeated a garrison of 1,500 Hessian regulars at Trenton. The storm gave the American attack an element of surprise; it concealed their approach and interrupted patrols by the Hessian sentries, already exhausted from days of fending off guerilla attacks from local irregulars. A week later, having persuaded his veterans to stay past their enlistment dates through a combination of moral suasion and a ten dollar bounty in hard coin, Washington set out to re-establish an American presence in New Jersey. Recrossing the Delaware -- under conditions even worse than the first time -- on January 2, Washington's men withstood a fierce counterattack by British Regulars led by General Cornwallis on the outskirts of Trenton. Seemingly trapped in their defensive position, the Americans stole away under cover of night, made a fifteen-mile march over miraculously frozen ground -- the road had been knee-deep mud the day before -- to Princeton. There, the exhausted troops encountered and defeated two British regiments rushing to reinforce Trenton. Victorious, Washington slipped away with his men, eventually finding winter quarters in Morristown. To the British eyes, Washington had suddenly 'shown himself both a Fabius and Camillus,' his march an unexpected 'prodigy of generalship'." --Marc Arkin -- The Federalist Brief 04-22

American Minute with Bill Federer JAN. 3 - Battle of Princeton - 'Who but a Washington, inspired by Heaven, could have struck out the great maneuver of Princeton?' Frederick the Great of Prussia called these ten days "the most brilliant in the world's history."  After winning the Battle of Trenton, Christmas night, George Washington's small force met General Cornwallis' 8,000 man British army. The night before the battle, Washington left his campfires burning and silently marched his army around the back of the British camp at Princeton, New Jersey. At daybreak, JANUARY 3, 1777, Washington attacked. When the British fought back, American troops under John Cadwalader began retreating. General George Washington quickly rode over, stopped the retreat, then ordered his men to follow him as he rode within 30 yards of the British.
   He suddenly turned, faced his men and yelled "Halt!" and then "Fire!" The British returned fire, filling the field with a cloud of smoke.  Many thought Washington was surely shot, as he was exposed to fire from both sides, but when the smoke cleared, Washington was seen waving his men to charge forward. Three British regiments were captured and enthusiasm swept America.
   President Calvin Coolidge stated October 28, 1925: "Distinguished military critics have described Washington's campaign of Trenton and Princeton as a military exploit of unparalleled brilliancy."
   Yale President Ezra Stiles stated in an Election Address before the Governor and General Assembly of Connecticut, May 8, 1783: "In our lowest and most dangerous estate, in 1776 and 1777, we sustained ourselves against the British Army of 60,000 troops, commanded by...the ablest generals Britain could procure throughout Europe, with a naval force of 22,000 seamen in above 80 men-of-war... Independence...was sealed and confirmed by God Almighty in the victory of General Washington at Trenton, and in the surprising movement and battle of Princeton... Who but a Washington, inspired by Heaven, could have struck out the great movement and maneuver of Princeton?..." Ezra Stiles continued:  "The United States are under peculiar obligations to become a holy people unto the Lord our God."

American Minute  "The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the courage & conduct of this army," George Washington, July 2, 1776, "We have, therefore to resolve to conquer or die" - ...When Lawrence (his brother) died, his Mount Vernon estate was eventually inherited by George, making him, at age 29, one of the largest landowners in Virginia.  George served as a colonel in the French and Indian War under General Edward Braddock, Commander of the British forces in America.  George miraculously survived the Battle of Monongehela in 1755, where he had two horses shot from under him and four bullets through his coat. Braddock was killed, leaving George in command. 

   In 1759, George fell in love and married the 26-year-old widow and mother with two children -- Martha Dandridge Custis.  George Washington was commissioned as General of the Continental Army in 1775.  When the Declaration of Independence was written, a copy was rushed out to Washington, who was fortifying New York City. He had it read to his troops, then ordered chaplains placed in each regiment, stating July 9, 1776:  "The General hopes and trusts, that every officer and man, will endeavour so to live, and act, as becomes a Christian Soldier, defending the dearest Rights and Liberties of his country." 

George Washington's Farewell Address

From George Washington's Farewell Address
As published in the American Daily Advertiser on September 17, 1796.

"Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness - these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and cherish them.

A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are instruments of investigation in courts of justice?

And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principles."

It is for very good reason that Richard Henry Lee, in his eulogy of Washington in 1799, stated that he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." The phrase was subsequently adopted by Congress. As early as 1778 Washington was known as the "father of his country."

One of the ways Washington exhibited his role was to give advice through wise counsel. Probably the most cogent, clear and concise counsel given by Washington was his Farewell Address delivered on September 19, 1796, close to the ninth anniversary (September 17) of the official signing of the Constitution. The address was never delivered in person, but it was printed in the newspaper. What did Washington write to the citizens and public officials in 1796 that would be wise counsel to us today? A few highlights would be in order as we commemorate Washington's birth.

First, Washington prayed for "unceasing vows that Heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your Union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained..." As Americans, we must insist once again that the constitution be sacredly maintained in its original intent.

Second, Washington noted that our unity as Americans was firmly rooted in our love of liberty. He wrote "interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment." Today, we need to pray that a love of true liberty would once again be the "ligaments of our hearts" as Americans.

Third, the regulation of liberty has come about, it would seem, through the control of national parties, something Washington warned against when he stated "the alternate domination of one faction over another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension... is itself a frightful despotism. The disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an Individual; and sooner or later the chief of some prevailing faction... turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of Public Liberty."

Fourth, Washington states "of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, Religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism, who should labor to subvert these great Pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties of Men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man ought to respect and to cherish them. We must restore this definition of patriotism, for without religious faith, all trust disappears. Washington states "where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice? And let us with caution indulge the supposition, that morality can be maintained without religion."

Finally, Washington addresses foreign relations with other nations. He states "observe good faith and justice towards all Nations." He shuns the idea of having most favored or most hated nations, for in either case one is an emotional slave to either one. He concludes his discussion by saying "our great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign Nations is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible."

Suffice it to say, we have not heeded Washington's advice. First, we have not held a sacred commitment to our Constitution, but have perverted its meaning and ignored its restraints. Second, we have not kept the fires of liberty as paramount, but instead have regulated the citizen and liberated the power and size of our government. Third, instead of protecting liberty, we have become a polarized nation of political parties, blindly loyal to them rather than our nation and the God who birthed it. Fourth, instead of honoring religious faith and Christianity as the indispensable source of our liberty, we have regulated faith to such a degree it is feared as an enemy. Finally, instead of limiting our political connections with other nations in order to maintain our sovereignty and independence, we entangled ourselves with so many nations it is impossible to do what is best for America without violating some pluralistic notion of global welfare.

The Father of our Country experienced a miracle early in his military career. 

This account is widely known and was included in most school history textbooks, until recent changes caused it to be deleted from many books. 


    During the French and Indian war at the Battle of the Monongahela, young Colonel Washington was engaged in a fierce skirmish with the Indians.  An easy target in his bold red coat, he crisscrossed the battlefield carrying General Braddock's orders to the troops. The Indian warriors later acknowledged that they were targeting all officers--and particularly Washington--in the bright garb. Yet Washington survived. There were eighty-six British and American officers involved in the battle; sixty-three of them died. Colonel Washington was the only officer on horseback who was not killed, and later, the Indians testified that they repeatedly shot at him, and were surprised that he never fell. They believed he was protected by an invisible power and that no bullet, bayonet, arrow or tomahawk could harm him. 

    Shortly after the Battle of Monongahela, George Washington wrote from Fort Cumberland to his younger brother, John Augustine Washington, July 18, 1755: "As I have heard, since my arrival at this place, a circumstantial account of my death and dying speech, I take this early opportunity of contradicting the first, and of assuring you, that I have not as yet composed the latter. But by the All-Powerful Dispensations of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for I had four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet escaped unhurt, although death was leveling my companions on every side of me!"

    ...(1770) Fifteen years after the Battle of Monongahela, George Washington and Dr. Craik, a close friend of his from his youth, were traveling through those same woods near the Ohio river and Great Kanawha river. There they were met by an old Indian chief, who addressed Washington through an interpreter: "I am a chief and ruler over my tribes. My influence extends to the waters of the great lakes and to the far blue mountains. I have traveled a long and weary path that I might see the young warrior of the great battle. It was on the day when the white man's blood mixed with the streams of our forests that I first beheld this Chief. I called to my young men and said, mark yon tall and daring warrior? He is not of the red-coat tribe-he hath an Indian's wisdom, and his warriors fight as we do-himself alone exposed ...

    ... Quick, let your aim be certain, and he dies. Our rifles were leveled, rifles which, but for you, knew not how to miss -- `twas all in vain, a power mightier far than we, shielded you. Seeing you were under the special guardianship of the Great Spirit, we immediately ceased to fire at you. I am old and soon shall be gathered to the great council fire of my fathers in the land of shades, but ere I go, there is something bids me speak in the voice of prophecy ...

    ... Listen! The Great Spirit protects that man and guides his destinies -- he will become the chief of nations, and a people yet unborn will hail him as the founder of a mighty empire. I am come to pay homage to the man who is the particular favorite of Heaven, and who can never die in battle."

   ...The account of an Indian warrior spread, that: "Washington was never born to be killed by a bullet! I had seventeen fair fires at him with my rifle and after all could not bring him to the ground!" 

American Minute coverage of that day: About a dozen years before the Revolutionary War, tensions increased in America between the British and the French with their Indian allies, resulting in battles. The most notable period of the French and Indian Wars lasted from 1754 to 1763. It is considered the first global war, as allies of the French and English fought all around the world. On July 9, 1755, about 1,400 British troops marched over the Appalachian Mountains to seize French Fort Duquesne, near present day Pittsburgh. As they marched through a deep wooded ravine along the Monongahela River eight miles from the fort, French regulars, Canadians, and Potawatomi and Ottawa Indians, suddenly ambushed by the French and Indians.

Not accustomed to fighting unless in an open field, over 900 British soldiers were annihilated. It was known as the Battle of the Wilderness or Battle of Monongahela. 23-year-old Virginia Colonel George Washington rode back and forth during the battle delivering orders for General Edward Braddock, the Commander-in-Chief of British forces in America. Eventually, Braddock was killed and every officer on horseback was shot, except Washington.     

Washington carried Braddock from the field. Braddock's field desk was captured, revealing all of the British military plans, enabling the French to surprise and defeat British forces in succeeding battles at Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry, Fort Duquesne, and Carillon. The Iroquois tribes of Senecas and Cayugas decided to switch their allegiance to the French. Before he died, Braddock gave Washington his battle uniform sash, which Washington reportedly carried with him while serving as Commander-in-Chief and as President. Washington presided at the burial service for General Braddock, as the chaplain was wounded. Braddock's body was buried in the middle of the road so as to prevent his body from being found and desecrated.     

Shortly thereafter, writing from Fort Cumberland, George Washington described the Battle of Monongahela to his younger brother, John Augustine Washington, JULY 18, 1755: "As I have heard, since my arrival at this place, a circumstantial account of my death and dying speech, I take this early opportunity of contradicting the first, and of assuring you, that I have not as yet composed the latter. But by the All-Powerful Dispensations of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human probability or expectation; for I had four bullets through my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet escaped unhurt, although death was leveling my companions on every side of me!" An Indian warrior later declared: "Washington was never born to be killed by a bullet! I had seventeen fair fires at him with my rifle and after all could not bring him to the ground!"

'Let My Heart Be Affected with Glory'

In a small field notebook, a soldier by the name of George Washington penned this prayer to thank the Lord for his ever-present grace and protection. "Thou hast preserved me from the dangers of the night past, and brought me to the light of this day, and the comfort thereof, a day which is consecrated to Thine own service and for Thine own honor.  Let my heart therefore, gracious God, be so affected with the glory and majesty of it, that I may not do mine own works, but wait on Thee, and discharge those weighty duties Thou required of me....  Bless my family, kindred, friends and country, be our God and guide this day and forever for His sake."

From the last will and testament of George Washington "To each of my Nephews, William Augustine Washington, George Lewis, George Steptoe Washington, Bushrod Washington, and Samuel Washington, I give one of my swords or Cutteaux of which I may be Possesed; and they are to chuse in the order they are named. These Swords are accompanied with an injuction not to unsheath them for the purpose of shedding blood, except it be for self defense, or in the defense of their Country and its rights; and in the latter case, to keep them unsheathed, and prefer falling with them in their hands, to the relenquishment thereof."

American Minute Accounts on George Washington

AmericanMinute.com with Bill Federer P.O. Box 20163, St. Louis, MO 63123  1-888-USA-WORD

American Minute for September 19th: The Lord of the Rings by J.R.R. Tolken tells of man's lust for "the ring of power." George Washington had that power and twice gave it up. When King George III asked American-born painter Benjamin West what Washington planned to do now that he had won the war, West replied "They say he will return to his farm." King George said "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Washington later served as President and again returned to his farm, similar to Roman leader Cincinnatus, who twice led Rome's Republic to victory in battle then returned to farming.

On SEPTEMBER 19, 1796, the world stood in awe as President George Washington delivered his Farewell Address, stating: "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, Religion and Morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that man claim the tribute of Patriotism who should labor to subvert these great Pillars... Let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion." George Washington continued: "Reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle... Morality is a necessary spring of popular government...Who that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation?"

George Washington continued warning in his Farewell Address: "And of fatal tendency...to put, in the place of the delegated will of the Nation, the will of a party; - often a small but artful and enterprising minority... They are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert the Power of the People and to usurp for the themselves the reins of Government; destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion... But this leads at length to a more formal and permanent despotism. The disorders and miseries, which result, gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an Individual...[who] turns this disposition to the purposes of his own elevation, on the ruins of Public Liberty... The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism...Let there be no change by usurpation... It is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed."

American Minute with Bill Federer AUG. 29 - George Washington and Native American Indians - In 1754, Colonel George Washington built Fort Necessity on Great Meadows, after a successful attack on the French in May. While encamped at Great Meadows, he received a letter from his brother Lawrence's father-in-law, Mr. William Fairfax: "I will not doubt your having public prayers in the camp, especially when the Indian families are your guests, that they, seeing your plain manner of worship, may have their curiosity excited to be informed why we do not use the ceremonies of the French, which being well explained to their understandings, will more and more dispose them to receive our baptism, and unite in strict bonds of cordial friendship."
   On May 12, 1779, General George Washington was visited at his Middle Brook military encampment by the Chiefs of the Delaware Indian tribe. They had brought three youths to be trained in the American schools. Washington assured them: "Brothers: I am glad you have brought three of the Children of your principal Chiefs to be educated with us. I am sure Congress will open the Arms of love to them, and will look upon them as their own Children, and will have them educated accordingly. This is a great mark of your confidence and of your desire to preserve the friendship between the Two Nations to the end of time, and to become One people with your Brethren of the United States...."
   Washington continued: "You do well to wish to learn our arts and ways of life, and above all, the religion of Jesus Christ. These will make you a greater and happier people than you are. Congress will do everything they can to assist you in this wise intention; and to tie the knot of friendship and union so fast, that nothing shall ever be able to loose it... And I pray God He may make your Nation wise and strong."
   After George Washington retired from being General of the Continental Army, he wrote from Mount Vernon to the President of the Continental Congress, February 8, 1785: "Toward the latter part of the year 1783, I was honored with a letter from the Countess of Huntington, briefly reciting her benevolent intention of spreading Christianity among the Tribes of Indians inhabiting our Western Territory; and expressing a desire of my advice and assistance to carry this charitable design into execution. I wrote her Ladyship...that I would give every aid in my power, consistent with the ease and tranquility, to which I meant to devote the remainder of my life, to carry her plan into effect... Her Ladyship has spoken so feelingly and sensibly, on the religious and benevolent purposes of the plan, that no language of which I am possessed, can add aught to enforce her observations."
   President Washington addressed Congress, November 6, 1792: "Laws will expire during the present session. Among these, that which regulates trade...with the Indian tribes... Your common deliberations...will, I trust, be productive...to our constituents...by conciliating more and more their ultimate suffrage...and confirm their attachment to that Constitution...upon which, under Divine Providence, materially depend...their happiness."
   On AUGUST 29, 1796, from the city of Philadelphia, President George Washington dictated a "Talk" to the Cherokee Nation: "Beloved Cherokees: The wise men of the United States meet once a year, to consider what will be for the good of all their people... I have thought that a meeting of your wise men once or twice a year would be alike useful to you... I now send my best wishes to the Cherokees, and pray the Great Spirit to preserve them."

American Minute for July 13th: After George Washington retired from being President, he became Commander-in-Chief of the Army for a second time. It was 1798, the year before he died, that he received an urgent plea from President John Adams. France, in the midst of revolution, was demanding extortion payments not to harass American ships. The cry went out "Millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute." George Washington replied to President John Adams, JULY 13, 1798: "Satisfied...that you have...exhausted, to the last drop, the cup of reconciliation, we can, with pure hearts, appeal to Heaven for the justice of our cause; and may confidently trust the final result to that kind Providence who has, heretofore, and so often, signally favored the people of these United States." George Washington continued: "Feeling how incumbent it is upon every person...to contribute at all times to his country's welfare, and especially in a moment like the present, when everything we hold dear and sacred is so seriously threatened, I have finally determined to accept the commission of Commander in Chief of the Armies of the United States." Then, on March 6, 1799, President John Adams declared a National Day of Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer to "the Most High God."

February 22 - George Washington was born FEBRUARY 22, 1732. He was unanimously chosen as the Army's Commander-in-Chief, unanimously chosen as President of the Constitutional Convention, and unanimously chosen as the first U.S. President. After the Declaration of Independence was read to his troops, General Washington ordered chaplains placed in each regiment, stating: "The General hopes and trusts, that every officer and man, will endeavour so to live, and act, as becomes a Christian Soldier, defending the dearest Rights and Liberties of his country."

In his Inaugural Address, Washington said: "It would be peculiarly improper to omit, in this first official act, my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the universe...No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the Invisible Hand which conducts the affairs of men more than the people of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation seems to have been distinguished by some token of Providential agency."

After his Inauguration, Washington attended a service conducted by Congress' chaplains in New York City's St. Paul's Chapel

November 2 - After defeating the British, General George Washington was so popular that many urged him to declare himself king. Instead, on November 2, 1783, from Rock Hill, near Princeton, the General issued his Farewell Orders:

"Before the Comdr in Chief takes his final leave of those he holds most dear, he wishes to indulge himself a few moments in calling to mind a slight review of the past...The singular interpositions of Providence in our feeble condition were such, as could scarcely escape the attention of the most unobserving; while the unparalleled perseverance of the Armies of the U. States, through almost every possible suffering and discouragement for the space of eight long years, was little short of a standing miracle... To the Armies he has so long had the honor to Command, he can only again offer in their behalf his recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to the God of Armies. May ample justice be done then here, and may the choicest of Heaven's favours, both here and thereafter, attend those who, under Divine auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others."

A month later he publicly bid a tearful farewell to his officers at Fraunces Tavern in New York.

November 26 - A week after Congress approved the First Amendment, President George Washington issued the first National Thanksgiving Proclamation, 1789:

"Whereas both Houses of Congress have by their joint Committee requested me 'to recommend to the People of the United States a day of public thanksgiving and prayer to be observed by acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God, especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness;' Now, therefore, I do recommend and assign Thursday, the TWENTY-SIXTH DAY of NOVEMBER next, to be devoted by the People of these United States to the service of that great and glorious Being, who is the beneficent Author of all the good that was, that is, or that will be; That we may then all unite in rendering unto Him our sincere and humble thanks...for the peaceable and rational manner in which we have been enabled to establish constitutions of government...particularly the national one now lately instituted, for the civil and religious liberty with which we are blessed...to promote the knowledge and practice of true religion and virtue."

July 13, 1798 - George Washington agrees to be Commander-in-Chief a second time! - After George Washington's two terms, John Adams was elected the second President. The situation with France had changed from the time they helped America win Independence. A French Revolution and an atheistic Reign of Terror resulted in 40,000 heads being chopped off in Paris, including King Louis XVI's. French privateers seized nearly 300 American ships bound for British ports. Talleyrand, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, demanded millions of dollars in bribes to leave America's ships alone. Known as the XYZ Affair, the American commission of Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry refused. The cry went out across America, "Millions for defense, not a cent for tribute."

As America and France came close to war, President John Adams asked George Washington, now retired at Mount Vernon, to again be Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Just a year before he died, Washington agreed, writing on JULY 13, 1798:

"Satisfied...you have...exhausted, to the last drop, the cup of reconciliation, we can, with pure hearts, appeal to Heaven for the justice of our cause; and may confidently trust the final result to that kind Providence who has, heretofore, and so often, signally favored the people of these United States... Feeling how incumbent it is upon every person...to contribute at all times to his country's welfare, and especially in a moment like the present, when everything we hold dear and sacred is so seriously threatened, I have finally determined to accept the commission of Commander-in-Chief.

President Adams declared a Day of Fasting, March 23, 1798, and again, March 6, 1799: "As...the people of the United States are still held in jeopardy by...insidious acts of a foreign nation, as well as by the dissemination among them of those principles subversive to the foundations of all religious, moral, and social obligations...I hereby recommend...a Day of Solemn Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer; That the citizens...call to mind our numerous offenses against the Most High God, confess them before Him with the sincerest penitence, implore His pardoning mercy, through the Great Mediator and Redeemer, for our past transgressions, and that through the grace of His Holy Spirit, we may be disposed and enabled to yield a more suitable obedience to His righteous requisitions...That He would interpose to arrest the progress of that impiety and licentiousness in principle and practice so offensive to Himself and so ruinous to mankind; That He would make us deeply sensible that 'Righteousness exalteth a nation.'"

The prayers of the country were answered, and war with France was averted. 

December 14th - He caught a chill riding horseback several hours in the snow while inspecting his Mount Vernon farm. The next morning it developed into "acute laryngitis" and the doctors were called in. Their response was to bleed him heavily four times, a process of cutting one's arm to let the "bad blood" out. They also had him gargle with a mixture of molasses, vinegar and butter. Despite their best efforts, the doctors could not save former President George Washington and he died this day, December 14, 1799, at the age of sixty-seven. After saying "Doctor, I die hard, but I am not afraid to go" and "I should have been glad, had it pleased God, to die a little easier, but I doubt not it is for my good," George Washington, at about 11pm, uttered his last words: "Father of mercies, take me unto thyself."

The Farmer's Promise - In the cold season of 1799, George Washington was happily retired at his Mount Vernon family home on the Potomac, where he entertained a constant flow of guests. On December 12th of that year, by the exceptional account of historians David and Jeanne Heidler: "He rode out to inspect the farms despite a lowering sky and a plunging thermometer. As he made his way, rain became snow, and it hailed. He was late returning to the mansion and would not delay dinner by changing into dry clothes." The next day was colder, with three inches of snow on the ground, but Washington, even sensing he had symptoms of a cold, "went out to tag some trees he wanted taken down." That night, his symptoms went "from bad, as his every swallow became like flame, to worse, as his throat began to close." He was having trouble breathing and his secretary, Tobias Lear, sent word for assistance from Dr. James Craik, among others. Upon Craik's arrival on the 14th and finding Washington's condition dire, he "bled" him, and did so four more times that day. As the Heidlers note, "Thus began the medieval medical rituals that never cured and sometimes killed." His doctors "did what they knew best, which was to open veins, administer purgatives, and ultimately heat tumblers to blister Washington's feet and legs, a procedure thought effective in drawing out toxins." According to Lear's diaries, late in the day, as Washington's condition was nearing fatal, he said to Craik: "I die hard; but I'm not afraid to go. ... You had better not take any more trouble about me; but let me go off quietly; I cannot last long." At about 11:00 he whispered his last words to Lear: "Tis well." His breathing stopped, and Craik gently closed Washington's eyes. He died with his wife Martha at his side.

On Washington's tomb at Mount Vernon is engraved: "I am the Resurrection and the Life; sayeth the Lord. He that believeth in Me, though he were dead yet shall he live. And whosoever liveth and believeth in Me shall never die." The Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., which is 555 feet tall, has engraved on its metal cap the Latin phrase "Laus Deo," which means "Praise be to God."

Eulogy, Letters and Notes

Official eulogy of Washington, written by John Marshall and delivered by Representative Richard Henry Lee, December 26, 1799 - "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in humble and enduring scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding; his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting.... Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues.... Such was the man for whom our nation mourns."

John Adams, Message to the U.S. Senate, December 19, 1799 - "His example is now complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our history shall be read."

Thomas Jefferson on George Washington in a letter to Dr. Walter Jones, 2 January 1814 - "Perhaps the strongest feature in his character was prudence, never acting until every circumstance, every consideration, was maturely weighed; refraining if he saw a doubt, but when once decided, going through with his purpose, whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was pure, his justice the most inflexible I have ever known, no motives of interest or consanguinity, of friendship or hatred, being able to bias his decision. He was, indeed, in every sense of the words, a wise, a good, and a great man."  ..."His person, you know, was fine, his stature exactly what one would wish, his deportment easy, erect and noble." Reference: Jefferson: Writings, Peterson ed., Library of America (1319)

The Model for Presidential Character -- George Washington The REAL President's Day By Mark Alexander - George Washington's birthday (February 22, 1732) was spontaneously celebrated nationally from the date of his death in 1799 until 1879, when Congress officially established the observance. In 1971, however, the celebration was changed from the date of his birthday to the third Monday in February, and with that change arose the generic "Presidents' Day." Consistent with the degradation of civic knowledge since then, most Americans know little about Washington beyond his standing as our first president, and his having accepted responsibility for chopping down a cherry tree when confronted by his father. Of course, that "I cannot tell a lie" cherry tree tale is a legend, but what it portrays of Washington's character is not. Today, the once-reverent observance of George Washington has devolved into a holiday that lumps Washington together with more recent presidential featherweights like Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton and Barack Hussein Obama. The comparison is laughable, but given the implications, it is also appalling.



President George Washington's angelic visitation which reputedly occurred during the American Revolution when the General and his army were encamped at Valley Forge. This report was originally published in the National Tribune in 1859, as told to Wesley Bradshaw, a newsman, by Anthony Sherman, an officer, who served under General Washington at Valley Forge. In the vision, Washington foresaw three great trials that would overtake the Union. These were the Revolutionary War, later, the Civil War, and another, still to come. If this vision be true we can be encouraged for the Nation's survival in spite of its enemies. Additionally, we can be thankful that our first President was a man of prayer.--- Charles Carrin.


The Report,  Wesley Bradshaw explained that the last time he saw Anthony Sherman was on the Fourth of July, 1859, in Independence Square, Philadelphia. Sherman was then ninety-nine years old and active though becoming feeble. "Let us go into the Hall," Sherman said. "I want to tell you of an incident of Washington's life, one which no one alive knows except myself; and if you live, you will before long see it verified."


In the Hall, Sherman continued, "From the opening of the Revolution we experienced all phases of fortune, now good and now ill, one time victorious and another conquered. The darkest period we had, I think, was when Washington, after several reverses, retreated to Valley Forge, where he resolved to spend the winter of 1777 ... You have doubtless heard the story of Washington's going into the thicket to pray. Well, it was not only true, but he used often to pray in secret for aid and comfort from God, the interposition of whose Divine Providence brought us safely through the darkest days of tribulation ... Returning just after dusk, he dispatched an orderly to the quarters of the officer I mention, who was presently in attendance.


After a preliminary conversation of about half an hour, Washington, gazing upon his companion with that strange look of dignity which he alone could command, said to the latter:


"I do not know whether it is owing to the anxiety of my mind, or what, but this afternoon, as I was sitting at this table engaged in preparing a dispatch, something seemed to disturb me. Looking up, I beheld standing opposite me a singularly beautiful female. So astonished was I, for I had given strict orders not to be disturbed, that it was some moments before I found language to inquire into the cause of her presence. A second, a third, and even a fourth time did I repeat my question, but received no answer from my mysterious visitor except a slight raising of her eyes.


"By this time I felt strange sentiments spreading through me. I would have risen, but the riveted gaze of the being before me rendered volition impossible. I assayed once more to address her, but my tongue had become useless, even thought itself had become paralyzed. A new influence, mysterious, potent, irresistible, took possession of me. All I could do was to gaze steadily, vacantly at my unknown visitor. Gradually, the surrounding atmosphere seemed as though becoming filled with sensations and luminous. Everything about me seemed to rarify, the mysterious visitor herself becoming more airy, and yet more distinct to my sight than before. I now began to feel as one dying, or rather to experience the sensations which I have sometimes imagined accompany dissolution. I did not think, I did not reason, I did not move; all were alike impossible. I was only conscious of gazing fixedly, vacantly at my companion.


"Presently I heard a voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look and learn,' while at the same time my visitor extended her arm eastwardly. I now beheld a heavy white vapor at some distance rising fold upon fold. This gradually dissipated, and I looked upon a strange scene. Before me lay spread out in one vast plain all the countries of the world -- Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. I saw rolling and tossing between Europe and America the billows of the Atlantic, and between Asia and America lay the Pacific. 'Son of the Republic,' said the same mysterious voice as before, 'look and learn.'  "At that moment I beheld a dark, shadowy being, like an angel floating in mid-air, between Europe and America, dipping water out of the ocean in the hollow of each hand. He sprinkled some upon America with his right hand, while with his left hand he cast some on Europe. Immediately a dark cloud raised from these countries and joined in mid-ocean. For a while it remained stationary, and then moved slowly westward, until it enveloped America in its murky folds. Sharp flashes of lightning passed through it at intervals, and I heard the smothered groans and cries of the American people.


"A second time the angel dipped water from the ocean, and sprinkled it out as before. The dark cloud was then drawn back to the ocean, in whose heaving billows it sank from view. A third time I heard the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look and learn.' I cast my eyes upon America and beheld villages and towns and cities springing up one after another until the whole land from the Atlantic to the Pacific was dotted with them. Again I heard the mysterious voice say, 'Son of the Republic, the end of the century cometh, look and learn.'  "At this the dark, shadowy angel turned his face southward, and from Africa I saw an ill-omened spectre approach our land. It flitted slowly over every town and city. The inhabitants presently set themselves in battle array against each other. As I continued looking, I saw a bright angel, on whose brow rested a crown of light, on which was traced the word "Union," bearing the American flag, which he placed between the divided nation, and said, 'Remember ye are brethren.' Instantly the inhabitants, casting from them their weapons, became friends once more and united around the National Standard. "And again I heard the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look and learn.'


At this, the dark, shadowy angel placed a trumpet to his mouth and blew three distinct blasts; and taking water from the ocean, he sprinkled it upon Europe, Asia, and Africa. Then my eyes beheld a fearful scene: from each of these countries arose thick, black clouds that were joined into one. And throughout this mass there gleamed a dark red light by which I saw hordes of armed men, who, moving with the cloud, marched by land and sailed by sea to America, which country was enveloped in the volume of the cloud. And I dimly saw these vast armies devastate the whole country and burn the villages, towns, and cities that I beheld were springing up. As my ears listened to the thundering of the cannon, clashing of swords, and the shouts and cries of millions in mortal combat, I heard again the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look and learn.' When the voice had ceased, the dark, shadowy angel placed his trumpet once more to his mouth and blew a long and fearful blast.


"Instantly a light as of a thousand suns shone down from above me, and pierced and broke into fragments the dark cloud which enveloped America. At the same moment the angel, upon whose head still shone the word "Union," and who bore our national flag in one hand and a sword in the other, descended from the heavens, attended by legions of white spirits. These immediately joined the inhabitants of America, who I perceived were well-nigh overcome, but who immediately taking courage again, closed up their broken ranks and renewed the battle. Again, amid the fearful noise of the conflict, I heard the mysterious voice saying, 'Son of the Republic, look and learn.' As the voice ceased, the shadowy angel for the last time dipped water from the ocean and sprinkled it upon America. Instantly the dark cloud rolled back, together with the armies it had brought, leaving the inhabitants of the land victorious.


"Then once more I beheld the villages, towns, and cities springing up where I had seen them before, while the bright angel, planting the azure standard he had brought in the midst of them, cried with a loud voice, 'While the stars remain, and the heavens send down dew upon the earth, so long shall the Union last.' And taking from his brow the crown on which was blazoned the word "Union," he placed it upon the Standard, while the people, kneeling down, said, 'Amen.' 

"The scene instantly began to fade and dissolve, and I at last saw nothing but the rising, curling vapor I at first beheld. This also disappearing, I found myself once more gazing upon the mysterious visitor, who, in the same voice I had heard before, said, 'Son of the Republic, what you have seen is thus interpreted:


Three great perils will come upon the Republic. The most fearful is the third, passing which the whole world united shall not prevail against her. Let every child of the Republic learn to live for his God, his land, and the Union.' With these words the vision vanished, and I started from my seat, and felt that I had seen a vision wherein had been shown me the birth, progress, and destiny of the United States."


"Such, my friends," Anthony Sherman concluded, "were the words I heard from General Washington's own lips, and America will do well to profit by them."